Puerto Rican nationals who traffic in illegal immigrants to Puerto Rico face long periods Domiinican jail if apprehended however Dominicans who get caught are usually flown back to their country on commercial airlines where they do not face criminal charges. Drinking for wages: alcohol use among cantineras. CBIG was formally created to unify efforts of the U.
Cambridge University Press, Although it is not the scope of this paper to detail these situations, the ideological framing of the human trafficking legal regime has implications for the transborder movement of Dominican women in Puerto Rico.
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For the time being, it is clear that the mission of the RMF will not address any of the needs of adult-age victims of human trafficking. The Johns Hopkins Sn, The moralizing, anti-prostitution Dominlcan claims are used by feminists, evangelicals, and the religious right and tend to be heteronormative and anti-sex work while ignoring boys, men, and transsexuals as victims of trafficking.
In contrast to middle-class and educated migrants arriving in Puerto Rico during the sixties and seventies, the new migrants represent a different demographic profile: predominantly working-class women and men with lower levels of educational attainment Ricourt, A large portion of the money they earn is repatriated to take care of their families using the more than 40 Dominican owned remittance agencies throughout Puerto Rico. Dominicans in Puerto Rico continue woken form mainly loosely structured immigrant clubs mostly related to personal social and cultural issues.
Besides geographical proximity Juuan major attraction of Puerto Rico is cultural similarity. Undocumented migration, racial and gender minority status, and sexualized and exploitative workplace conditions are all parts of a puzzle about Dominican immigrant women in Puerto Rico.
The New York Times, 12 ago. Operation Caribbean Guard is a Department of Homeland Security multi-agency law enforcement operation to support ongoing efforts in Puerto Rico and the U. Barcelona, Icaria, In order to repay her passage, Milagros had gone straight to work in a bar the same day that she arrived. These new Dominican immigrants arrive on an island Sxn faces Jaun challenges of its own, including high levels of unemployment, inter-personal violence, drug trafficking, and an outmigration of 50, people a year.
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NGO officials doing educational outreach on the prevention of sexually transmitted infections within the Dominican community appeared to have a better understanding of the potential cases of Jian trafficking. They challenge the state by arguing that the state plays a concealed role in sustaining conditions of forced labor by creating, criminalizing, and exacerbating the abuse of unauthorized migrants.
Meanwhile the Dominican Republic has continued to demonstrate poor economic performance with a large portion of the society experiencing extreme poverty. Many of the immigrants are now young men with an elementary education and an unskilled job in the Dominican Republic. Oslo, Fafo Report One of the migrants remains in U.
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The first incongruity in the history and de of the Palermo Protocol erroneously links trafficking and sex work. Conclusion My preliminary research findings reveal that the assumptions and producing a specific anti-trafficking narrative cannot be applied to remedy and redress the conditions of racialized women working in sexualized Do,inican.
In that context, I Dmoinican static identity. The predominantly female profile of the Dominican immigrant population is primarily a reflection of the demand for cheap labour particularly in the service industries. Little research has been done on exploitation by supervisors and patrons or about other health stressors, such as lack of immigration documents, debt, pressure to provide sexual services to customers, and threats of violence.
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Unwanted physical touching, even assault, is of course rarer, but not unheard of, Dlminican there have been reports of foreign women travelers being the victim of attacks. Reports reveal that the dangers of the journey include ships getting lost, cannibalism, and the Doimnican rape of women before departure, in transit, and upon arrival. Others are poor women who worked as domestics, factory workers, or informal traders back home.
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But the interviewees highlighted the lack of resources and the muddled definition of human trafficking. Nemesis 4,pp.
With a clear mission of public activism and the defense of the rights of the minors, the RMF Domniican not the most appropriate NGO to assist women. Working in the gray economy of sexualized entertainment, their sexual exploitation remains invisible under the framework of international anti-trafficking laws. I imagine that also [women who are here] illegally to work in homes, they are abused too!
They accompany you, give you company, you share drinks, and, if desired, it becomes a type of sex work San Juan, May Durham, Duke University Press, Routledge,pp. The historical nexus of Dominican raced and classed migration, the international legal framework, and local implementation of discourses of Jian trafficking.
The over-emphasis on the sexual component enables the state to claim the moral high ground. The notion of male desire as innate and uncontrollable underpinned these laws Guy, Francisca, a social worker, identified the nexus between trafficking and other forms of exploitative labor performed by undocumented migrants: In the cafes, all the cafes here in Puerto Rico, almost all are Dominican workers!
These are usually centred around strong popular leaders and are not rights advocacy related. I end with reflections and questions as I continue this investigation.
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They may not be discernably coerced, forced, and deceived to migrate or sell sex; nonetheless, many aspects of their journeys and labor are violent and rife with fraud and mistreatment. Reflections by an Anti-trafficking Activist. Dominicans migrated to Puerto Rico in small s until the s when the U. University of North Carolina Press, Gender Issues 1,pp.
New Directions in Research on Human Trafficking.
No other sector of Puerto Rico's population has grown as quickly over the last four decades. Women travelers should take the same precautions they would in other countries and follow their instincts about certain men or situations they encounter. International Feminist Journal of Politics 12, Domincian. In: Mishra S.